Many of us have fiber optic cable that delivers Internet access to our homes or offices. But optical fiber cable can be used for more than high-speed data transfer. I'm not talking about artwork or illumination but a vital security application: physical intrusion detection.
To understand how this works, you need to know a little bit about fiber optic cable. There are two types of fiber: single-mode and multimode. Without getting deep into the weeds and mathematics of the transmission of light in the two types of fibers, there are some crucial differences:
- Single-mode fiber can be used in applications requiring higher speeds or longer distances.
- Single-mode fiber has a minimal diameter compared to multimode.
- Single-mode fiber is more expensive per meter, and the equipment is more expensive than that for multimode.
Single-mode and multimode fiber can each be used for intrusion detection, but the mechanisms are significantly different. Vendors who sell intrusion detection schemes based on fiber keep their exact schemes proprietary, but the concepts are similar. For example, one factor the vendors keep confidential is determining whether the intrusion was by a pedestrian or a vehicle.
The beam profile of a single-mode (left) and a multimode (right) fiber
How it works
In the case of multimode fiber, the concept is straightforward: a laser sends light through the fiber (as when the fiber is used to transmit data). The light at the receiving end forms a speckle pattern when the fiber is undisturbed. When the fiber is under pressure or significantly bent, the pattern of the light at the receiving end changes. This allows a device at the receiving end to analyze the distortion and notify a monitoring device accordingly.
In the case of single-mode fiber, things get a bit more complicated. The nature of light traveling in a single path or mode through the fiber, no pattern at the receiving end can be disturbed. Instead, one wavelength or color of light is sent through the fiber in one direction, and another wavelength of light is sent in the other direction. Pressure on the cable changes the way the cable transmits light that can be detected at the end of the cable.
(Another technique involving light pulses has been used to detect earthquakes, which is beyond the scope of security uses.)
When might it be used?
Using fiber optic cable for intrusion detection is not inexpensive, so when might it be appropriate? Significant applications are in areas where a clear view of a perimeter or internal area cannot be easily viewed directly.
Consider a facility where one or more portions of a perimeter border an area of dense vegetation such as a forest. In that case, the physical plant may want to erect a fence on that perimeter. A cable could be integrated with the fence or placed inside or outside it to detect vehicles or individuals at the fence or trying to cross it.
Inside a facility, a system might be deployed where there is little activity at a particular time of day. Specifically, a system might be used in a server room not generally occupied at night.
Rightly, organizations are often reluctant to discuss their specific security measures. That makes knowing how many and what types of fiber optic intrusion detection systems are in use. But a web search for vendors indicates that the market size is not trivial. Who knows, you or I may traverse such a system daily. But, if you do - knowingly or unknowingly - at least you know how it works.
This piece was originally posted on April 2, 2019, and has been refreshed with updated styling.