# Fundamentals of Statistics for Data Science Training

Course 1265

• Duration: 2 days
• Labs: Yes
• Language: English
• Level: Foundation

If you think that statistics has nothing to say about what you do, or how you could do it better, then you are either wrong or in need of a more interesting job.

Stephen Senn

Statistics is the science in data science. Without it, your "data-driven" decision-making may be driving you off a cliff edge. A solid grasp of statistical reasoning ensures that you tease only valid insights from your data.

Many traps await the unwary data explorer. In this course, you will learn how to avoid embarrassing mistakes that could undermine months of work.

You will gain hands-on experience with the tools required to make sense of your data and draw the correct conclusions. The focus is on statistical thinking. Concepts will be introduced intuitively before being expanded on formally. You will learn how to think in terms of distributions — not single-point estimates. Statistical methods will be introduced in the context of how to use them to gain insight and solve problems. As a bonus, you will also get the chance to use the powerful, industry-standard R environment to do the number-crunching.

Introduction to Statistics is an essential course for anyone technical, managerial or administrative — interested in using data to inform their decision-making. There are certification bundles available with this training. This course forms part of Learning Tree's Certified Decision Scientist program.

There are no formal prerequisites for attending this course.

Anyone who is required to draw conclusions from numbers.

No prior knowledge of statistics or software packages is required. An inquisitive nature and an interest in using numbers to solve problems are essential.

## Fundamentals of Statistics for Data Science Training Delivery Methods

• Learning Tree end-of-course exam included
• After-course computing sandbox included
• After-course instructor coaching included

## Fundamentals of Statistics for Data Science Training Course Benefits

Visualize dataDraw conclusions about the features and quality of data setsSummarize your dataDetermine correlationThink of numbers as distributionsUnderstand sampling and it's importance in statistic inferenceUse the power of computers to generate distributions for any problemCalculate confidence intervals and p-valuesMake valid statistic inferences using a range of hypothesis testsCritique statistical analysesDesign and execute your own statistical projects

## Fundamentals of Statistics for Data Science Course Outline

• Course philosophy
• Software
• Contents
• Definition
• Types of statistician
• Variability
• Probability
• Let the die roll!
• Die roll outcomes
• Why is knowledge of statistics important?
• Descriptive vs inferential statistics
• Inferring population parameters
• Quantitative data
• Qualitative data
• R statistical software
• RStudio
• Interactive exercise manual demo
• What is exploratory data analysis (EDA)
• Histograms and bar charts
• Bar chart vs histogram
• Bin width is crucial
• Right-skewed data
• Outliers
• Left-skewed data
• Bimodal data
• Separate subpopulations for analysis
• Individual value plot
• Subpopulation individual value plots
• Benefits of boxplots
• Boxplot
• Boxplot vs histogram
• Left-skewed boxplot
• Compare subpopulations using boxplots
• Swedish salaries by level of education
• Measures of central tendency
• Mean vs median
• Mean vs median for skewed data
• Mode
• Range and IQR
• Standard deviation
• Six figure summary
• Central tendency and spread equations
• Quantiles
• Benefits of scatterplots
• Scatterplot
• Highlighting subgroups on scatterplot
• What is correlation?
• Correlation examples
• Random data correlation
• Literacy rate correlation
• # children per woman correlation
• Interpreting correlation coefficients
• Correlation doesn’t imply causation
• Causation doesn’t imply (linear) correlation
• Numbers are mostly reckless estimates
• Random variables
• Male life expectancy in UK distribution
• What’s the probability that a US man is 6’ or more?
• What is a probability distribution?
• Populations vs samples
• Sampling the heights of 10 random American men
• Sampling the heights of 100,000 random American men
• Discrete probability distributions
• Roll two dice and histogram the results
• Poisson distribution
• Binary probability distributions
• Probability distribution for cars/household in the UK
• Binomial distribution
• Geometric distribution
• Negative Binomial distribution
• Continuous probability distributions
• Uniform distribution
• Triangular distribution
• Normal distribution
• Properties of the normal distribution
• Distribution of IQ scores
• Different means (same standard deviation)
• Different standard deviations (same mean)
• z-distribution
• 68–95–99.7 (empirical) rule
• Quantile-Quantile (Q-Q) plot
• Q-Q plot of non-normal data
• Common probability distributions “family tree”
• Samples are proxies for the population of interest
• Unfortunately, samples vary
• Larger samples exhibition less variation
• Statistics vs parameters
• Distributions involved in statistical inference
• Sampling distribution of mean IQ
• Collecting more IQ samples
• Sampling distribution of mean die roll
• Sampling distribution of mean project duration
• Create a sampling distribution
• Central limit theorem
• Implications of the central limit theorem
• Standard error of the mean (SEM)
• Impact of sample size on SEM
• What is a confidence interval?
• 95% confidence interval
• Bigger samples give greater precision
• Smaller confidence levels result in tighter intervals
• How should we interpret the confidence interval?
• Random sampling
• Simple random sampling
• Stratified sampling
• Cluster sampling
• What is bootstrapping?
• Estimating median life expectancy
• What is statistical inference?
• Why must we use samples?
• Why do we need to conduct hypothesis tests?
• What is hypothesis testing?
• Null hypothesis
• Alternative hypothesis
• Rejecting the null hypothesis
• One- vs Two-tailed hypothesis tests
• Choosing between one- and two-tailed tests
• What are p-values?
• Significance level (?)
• Types of errors
• Confidence levels vs significance levels
• Performing hypothesis tests
• p-value controversy
• When to use a t-test
• t-value
• t-distribution
• t-distributions
• Are slot machine payouts within tolerance?
• Preform a t-test on RTP data using R
• Two-sample t-test
• When to use a z-test
• Conducting hypothesis tests using z-scores
• When to use a 2 test
• Education and Brexit vote
• Brexit vote breakdown
• 2 value
• 2 distributions
• Are education and Brexit vote related?
• When to use a F-test
• Conducting hypothesis tests using F-values
• F-distributions
• Height distribution by sex
• Does height variation differ by sex?
• When to use analysis of variance (ANOVA)
• Determining the F-value
• Are all diets the same?
• All diets are apparently not the same
• Normality hypothesis tests
• Statistically significant treatments?
• What is statistical power?
• Calculating statistical power
• Statistical power curve
• Improving statistical power of hypothesis tests

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## Course FAQs

Statistics is the science of analyzing data, particularly in large quantities, and using it to draw more general conclusions.

Without statistics, conclusions drawn from data can be fatally flawed. As data becomes ubiquitous, the ability to analyze it responsibly is essential.

Participants be able to understand basic mathematical concepts (high-school level) and have a level of comfort with using computer software, such as Excel.

Yes. There are various opportunities to conduct analyses throughout the period of the training.

Yes! We know your busy work schedule may prevent you from getting to one of our classrooms which is why we offer convenient online training to meet your needs wherever you want. This course is available online, in person, or as Private Team Training.

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